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※ SDGs The Sustainable Development Goals are the blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all.

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31 . Anguilla Public sector corruption and perceived government performance in transition

We offer evidence that public sector corruption has an inverse association with evaluations of performance at both the local and central government levels. Consistent with ex ante expectations, perceptions of corruption among local government officials are directly and negatively related to performance evaluations at the local government level and relatively less so at the central government level. Conversely, perceptions of corruption among overall government officials have a stronger negative association with performance evaluations of central governments relative to performance evaluations of local governments. These results confirm that individual evaluations of public sector corruption affect perceived government performance evaluations, with local–local, local–central, central–local, and central–central level variances. Regressions by country groups—such as European Union membership, or geographic clusters, such as Southeastern Balkan or the former Soviet Union states—continue to support the core findings with one caveat. Results from two‐level random intercepts and slopes regression models show that the negative association between perceived corruption and government performance evaluation is weaker in contexts with relatively higher levels of public corruption.

30 . Anguilla South Korea’s soft power in the era of the Covid-19 pandemic

Since the recent outbreak of the Covid-19, South Korea has demonstrated successful pandemic management that can be exemplary to other countries. This paper analyzes how South Korea’s responses to the Covid-19 pandemic has changed the perceptions of the country in Europe. Through a survey conducted with Korea experts in 16 European countries, this paper documents the positive recognition of South Korea’s pandemic management by the European public. Part of the positive appraisal can be attributed to South Korea’s extensive testing, high technology, and the culture of wearing a face mask, while the opinions were more mixed regarding its comprehensive tracking and tracing strategy. Furthermore, the findings of the survey show that Europeans’ overall perception of South Korea has been improved together with its Covid-19 management. This evidence suggests that the country’s success in pandemic management can be an instrument of public diplomacy to enhance its soft power, for which the government of South Korea currently invests considerable efforts.

29 . Anguilla Will you work less, mommy? The effect of air pollution on labor supply in South Korea

We investigate whether air pollution affects the labor supply in South Korea. To address endogeneity in the level of local air pollution, we utilize plausibly exogenous changes in wind directions as instruments. This choice is based on the observation that air pollution in South Korea is affected by spillovers from the neighboring countries, mediated by wind directions. We find that mothers reduce working hours in response to the worsening air quality, and the impact attenuates, as children grow. Children’s vulnerability to the air pollutants and mothers’ role as the principal caregiver is the probable reason that drives the results.

28 . Anguilla The Republic of Korea’s first 70 days of responding to the COVID-19 outbreak

The COVID-19 pandemic has become a daunting global crisis with profound health, economic, and social impacts felt across the world. As of April 9, 2020, more than 1.5 million positive cases had been confirmed and nearly 90,000 people had died as a result of the virus. As the disease continues to spread, governments are tackling this crisis in different ways, and their efforts are yielding varying results, with some countries continuing to experience increasing numbers of new cases daily and others starting to see a flattening of the growth curve. The Republic of Korea was one of the first countries to respond to COVID-19. The first positive case was identified on January 20, 2020, and daily confirmed cases peaked at 813 on February 29. Since then, the number of new cases has declined until reaching about 100 per day in mid-March. Although it remains uncertain how the crisis will play out over the longer term, Korea’s approach has been effective in slowing the spread of COVID-19. Policy makers and practitioners are asking how Korea has been able to achieve this encouraging outcome while many other countries continue to experience exponential growth in their number of new cases. This case study provides an overview of how Korea responded to the outbreak and how it achieved positive results in containing the disease.

27 . Anguilla A comparative research on the variations of PPP contracts

It is fair to say that the research on Public-Private Partnership (PPP), in particular, on its risk-return profiles, is rare, despite the fact that this form of infrastructure financing has been on the rise during the last two decades in a diverse set of countries. This study aims to fill that gap by offering a comparative study on the two frequently-employed PPP contracts in Korea and other countries - Availability Payment (AP) PPP contracts vs. Concession (C) PPP contracts - with respect to ex-post (or realized during the operational stage) risk-adjusted return characteristics. To that end, we compiled a unique project-level data set that covers the performance indicators of those PPP projects initiated from 1995 to 2014 in Korea both at-contract as well as at-operation stages and applied a three-factor CAPM model to estimate the alpha and beta for those two types of PPP contracts. Our empirical results indicate that: ceteris paribus, AP-PPP entails a higher market-driven risk to the private partners; the systematic risk factors caused by the size and by the book-to-market-ratio have statistically significant effects on the ex-post returns; and, the ex-post excess returns are shown to be not significant, neither statistically nor economically. Based on our findings, we discuss the welfare implications of PPP contracts out of their systematic risk characteristics documented.

26 . Anguilla Exploring determinants of performance indicator and customer satisfaction of accommodation sharing

This study investigates the determinants of performance indicators and perceptions of existing and potential customers in accommodation sharing. This study uses data of Airbnb in Busan and Jeju from January 1 to December 31, 2018, provided by AirDNA. The total number of listed accommodation sharing was 5,109 accommodations in Busan and 11,502 accommodations in Jeju. More than 90 property types of registered accommodations are subcategorized and re-classified in this study. Study 1 examined the current usage and effects of factors on performance indicator in tourism destinations by applying Airbnb data. Study 2 investigated effects of perceived factors on satisfaction, intention to use, loyalty, and tourism competitiveness by applying online survey data. This study applies statistical analyses such as factor and regression analyses, ANOVA, t-test, and MANOVA. Results of Study 1 showed that usage and effects of accommodation sharing differ from regulation that is related to sharing types. Effects also differ based on travel destinations. Results of Study 2 showed how customers perceive accommodation sharing differ from pure meaning of sharing. The results of Study 1 and 2 found significant effects of price and service factors on performance indicator and customer satisfaction. The findings of Study 2 showed significant effects on loyalty and tourism competitiveness.

25 . Anguilla Female mentors and peers

This paper investigates whether gender-matching school environments can foster girls’ confidence and motivation in science. Using the PISA data from South Korea, the findings show that single-sex schooling and female teachers have positive effects on high-performing girls’ attitudes in science studies. By attending an all-girls school and being taught by female science teachers, girls who are ranked in the highest quartile of the science test become as motivated and interested in pursuing studies and careers in STEM fields as boys in the same rank. However, the role of single-sex schooling is not as positive for average- and low-performing girls. On the other hand, the effect of female teachers is more generalized, in that female teachers can boost girls’ competitive attitudes regardless of their study records. These findings corroborate that gender-matching schooling can be a useful policy instrument of promoting female talent in STEM fields. But the positive effect is not universal and cannot be generalized for everyone.